Leading a Company


Crisis management is a preventative approach that every digital marketing team should implement as best practices protocol.   Arranging a crisis communication policy before a problem is strategy to ensure that every member of an organization has clear guidance and supports the organizational values.  Digital marketing and crisis management are a blend of public relations.

Diverse Teams Department-Wide

Policy creation for crisis management begins with product development departments and incorporates advertising and marketing departments policies. Sterin (2012) identifies that the Tylenol crisis of the 1980s did not have an established internal policy for managing emergencies, which was a tipping point for corporate crisis management strategy. A digital marketing team is a crucial part of managing a crisis but the team needs to have a clear idea of crisis management policy to promote organizational values. Dawley (2016) identifies guidelines that should be included in a crisis management policy including

  • Guidelines for identifying the type and magnitude of a crisis
  • Roles and responsibilities for every department
  • A communication plan for internal updates
  • Up-to-date contact information for critical employees
  • Approval processes for messaging posted on social media
  • Any pre-approved external messaging, images, or information
  • A copy of the company-wide social media policy (p. 1)

These guidelines should be in place for a digital marketing team so that marketers can problem solve online while promoting the goals, values, and mission of an organization. A digital marketing team is equally as responsible for the image of a company so a policy that includes how to manage the image during a crisis is necessary for deescalating and controlling problems.

Preparation is Key

The Girl Scout motto “Be Prepared” (Girl Scouts, 2017) is both simple and effective. By comparing case studies of crisis management, a clearer strategy for future crisis management policies. Comparing and contrasting Odwalla Foods e.coli outbreak and Mattel toy recall offers digital marketing teams the ability to understand the importance of relationships and quick responses. Over the course of a decade, Mattel issued multiple recalls because toys manufactured in China did not meet American safety standards (Levick, 2007). Similarly, Odwalla Foods issued a recall after multiple injuries and death was caused by contaminated apple and carrot juice (Bhasin, 2011).

Both companies anticipated that the components within their products were manufactured to safety standards determined but the outcomes of unsafe products were unexpected. In 1996, Odwalla CEO Williamson issued an immediate recall, paid medical costs of affected consumers, and provided daily press briefing through multiple media sources after an e.coli outbreak (Bhasin, 2011). Although Mattel had similar strategy, 31 recalls from 1998 to 2007 (Levick, 2007) indicates that Mattel leadership chose low cost production over consumer safety.

Both the toy company and food company have to rely on the honesty of the materials distributor. The biggest issue that emerges is Mattel continued to produce toys that did not meet safety standards while Odwalla had one batch of contaminated product. Even though both companies experience a significant financial loss, the strategies employed by both companies were similar to crisis management policy guideline identified by Dawley, which was to keep people informed.

Crisis Communication and Teamwork

An evolving policy that outlines expectations provides digital teams guidance not only for behavioral expectations during a crisis but how to create marketing material before a crisis occurs. Preparing information for public distribution during a crisis can be the lifesaver because this action recognizes that department-wide unity can help quite digital information sharing. Furthermore, demonstrating concern, diligence, and acknowledgement during a crisis facilitates recovery after a crisis.


Bhasin, K. (2011, May 26). 9 PR Fiascos that were handled brilliantly by management. Business Insider. Retrieved from http://www.businessinsider.com/pr-disasters-crisis- management-2011-5?op=1/#johnson-and-johnsons-cyanide-laced-tylenol-capsules-1982-  1

Dawley, S. (2016, May 10). Social Media Crisis Management: How to Prepare and Execute a Plan. Hootsuite. Retrieved from https://blog.hootsuite.com/social-media-crisis-          management/

Girl Scouts (2017).  Traditions.  Retrieved from http://www.girlscouts.org/en/about-girl-   scouts/traditions.html

Levick, R. (2007, October 10). Lessons from the Mattel Crisis. Corporate Responsibility Magazine. Retrieved from http://thecro.com/topics/communications/lessons-from-the- mattel-crisis/

Sterin J. C. (2012). Mass Media Revolution. Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River, NJ.


What is Hot in Digital Media?


Digital media marketing is one of the most important elements of marketing in the 21st Century.  Of the seven predictions identified by marketing group Kantar Millward Brown, three predictions stood out as having the greatest impact on consumers in the future.  Adapting to investment options for mobile advertising, content creation by brands, and relationship development have been evolving as necessary survival practices in marketing.

Adaptation is not only a suggestion but critical for survival.  “Brands will invest more heavily in online and especially mobile video advertising in 2016, but many will fail to adapt their content for different ad formats” (Kantar Millward Brown, 2016, p. 5).  A company that fails to adapt to changing technologies and trends will not survive because people will either forget about that company or remember how painfully antiquated the company’s strategy had been.

Consumers do not want to be advertised to because advertising is irritating.  According to Kantar, Millward, and Brown, “More brands are becoming content creators.  As marketing moves from disruption to attraction, content marketing will move up the corporate agenda in 2016” (p. 6).  Consumers respond to content because content seems personalized and less intrusive.  Companies that create content and capitalize on viral content will see success in the changing digital market.

“Marketers will create new consumer journey maps that will unify sales and marketing teams to deliver brand growth” (Kantar Millward Brown, 2016, p. 6). Personalized content that seamlessly integrates across multiple technological devices is a reasonable forecast for digital marketing practices.  Companies that adapt to consumer behaviors and ideas will be able to deliver personalized information through mobile, which will provide further opportunity for brand synthesis.

Martin (2016) states that marketing mistakes are expected but companies should not wait for the right moment to begin marketing through mobile.  In the rapidly changing technological environment, digital media marketing will evolve into a foundation for a company.  Consumers are shopping on mobile right now so brands need to meet the consumers where they already are!


Kantar Millward Brown.  (2016). Digital & Media Predictions 2016.  Retrieved from http://www.millwardbrown.com/mb-global/our-thinking/insights-opinion/articles/digital-predictions/2016/2016-digital-and-media-predictions#introduction

Martin, C. (2013).  Mobile Influence: the new power of the consumer.  New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.


Innovative Mobile Marketing Campaigns


Mobile campaigns are integral for a successful marketing strategy because this is reaching customers through channels they are already. The campaigns listed in 7 Examples of Effective Mobile Marketing Campaigns highlight strong strategies for engaging customers through unique mobile marketing approaches. IKEA catalogue app, Nissan interactive video ad, Audi-start-stop app, Nivea sun protection track your kids app, and Hiscox’s location based WiFi campaigns demonstrate the importance of innovative mobile marketing through customer engagement (Allen, 2016).

IKEA Catalogue App

Chernev (2009) describes three dimensions for creating company value, which are monetary, functional, and psychological. IKEA catalogue app appeals to customers who are already familiar with the value of IKEA products, and provides functional and psychological values by allowing customers place IKEA furniture into their spaces. The innovation behind the app is the ability to superimpose products with devices customers already own. Allen (2016) states that the app was useful and fun to customers, which prevented the marketing feel and created content. Strategies from the IKEA catalogue app that can be useful for promoting a state travel bureau campaign is using an app so people can superimpose their image into national parks, tourist destinations, and other points of interest. Future travelers can arrive at those locations and take photos of themselves to compare and contrast the pictures.

Nissan Interactive Video Ad

Using a touch screen while driving can be dangerous especially if the weather and road conditions are unfavorable. The Nissan Interactive Video Ad addresses the safety of using both a vehicle and a touch screen simultaneously while highlighting the importance of safety. Although this campaign has a more traditional marketing feel, the innovation behind the ad is engaging the consumer directly through mobile marketing.   Martin (2013) indicates that situational relevance is the services offered to the mobile consumer on location. The Nissan Interactive Video Ad promotes location-based marketing while connecting the concept of safety to the emotional element of family. A state travel bureau can promote safe driving for travelers using this type of app employed by Nissan. Travelers can access information in the app about an area to learn how to navigate in unfamiliar weather, terrain, and conditions.

Audi-Start-Stop App

In Germany and many parts of Europe, idling a vehicle at a traffic light violates the law. The German carmaker Audi and the Start-Stop app coincide with laws in Germany and Europe. From the German Traffic Laws

If the engine is warm and the driver expects to let the vehicle idle for more than 30 seconds, it is more efficient to turn the engine off and restart it when ready to drive away than to keep the engine running (AE Pamphlet 190-34 USAFE Pamphlet 31-206, 2010).

Although the app has practical applications in other areas, drivers who do not have an automatic engine shutoff can benefit from using this app as a reminder that fuel is both finite and expensive. The Audi-Start-Stop App is innovative because people may not realize how much time is spent wasting resources like mobile battery life or vehicle fuel. Saving battery power and other resources while traveling is beneficial for a successful trip. An app that reminds users to save battery power on mobile devices can be useful to travelers who might have limited access to charging options while traveling.

Nivea Sun Protection Track Your Kids App

Children and boundaries are a constant dilemma for parents because children want to explore but parents want to protect their children. The Nivea Track Your Kids app strikes the midpoint of allowing children the freedom to explore their environment while providing parents the assurance of whereabouts. The strategic focus that Nivea uses for the Track Your Child app is a preemptive strike in marketing. “Preemptive strategies involve moving first to secure an advantageous position that rivals are prevented from or discouraged from duplicating” (Thompson Jr., Strickland III, and Gamble, 2005, p. 158). Nivea leveraged their brand with parents by creating a useful tool. Parents can easily access the unique innovation behind the campaign because the technology is available at minimal cost. A tracking app with coordinating wristband can be an effective device for travelers in unfamiliar areas. The technology can provide a sense of security while prompting exploration for travelers.

Hiscox’s Location Based Wifi Campaign

WiFi has become a necessary part of using a mobile device. The ability to find WiFi that safe and fast is the strategy behind the Hiscox’s Location Based Wifi Campaign. Spoofing is defined as cyber attack that replicates the identity of device such as a router so that information can be illegally obtained (Spoof, 2006). In the 21st century, small business owners need to be able to conduct business immediately and securely so the ability to use WiFi that is safe and instant makes the Hiscox’s Location Based Wifi Campaign innovative. People traveling in unfamiliar areas can benefit from using WiFi that is secure to learn more about the area. Mobile WiFi can save user data while providing travelers with an exceptional experience.

Innovation for the Future

Mobile is a essential element for travelers and for consumers. Creating lasting impressions through innovative content was achieved by the marketing approaches of IKEA, Nissan, Audi, Nivea, and Hiscox. Each aspect from these campaigns demonstrates innovation in their respective markets, while incorporating the essential mobile elements that have become necessary in mobile marketing. Additionally, these campaigns provide a starting point for a state travel bureau to create exciting content for future travelers. The mobile marketing future is nimble as long as people are consuming content on mobile devices.


AE Pamphlet 190-34 USAFE Pamphlet 31-206. (2010, November 16). Drivers handbook and examination manual for Germany. Retrieved from             http://www.eur.army.mil/rmv/Documents_PDF/aep190-34.pdf

Allen, R. (2016, April 29). 7 examples of effective mobile marketing campaigns. Smart    Insights. Retrieved from http://www.smartinsights.com/mobile-marketing/mobile-       advertising/7-effective-mobile-marketing-campaigns/

Chernev, A. (2009). Strategic marketing management 5th Ed. Chicago, IL: Brightstar Media.

Martin, C. (2013). Mobile Influence: the new power of the consumer. New York, NY: Palgrave    Macmillan.

Spoofing. (2006). In High definition: A-Z guide to personal technology. Boston, MA: Houghton   Mifflin. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.snhu.edu/login?url=http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/hmhigh def/spoofing/0?institutionId=943

Thompson Jr., A. A., Strickland III, A. J., Gamble, J. E. (2005). Crafting and executing strategy, the quest for competitive advantage concepts and cases. 14th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.




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In the 21st century, mobile connection and economics are becoming synonymous with each other. Digital leader and motivational speaker Erik Qualman identifies several statistics of marketing through mobile economics, which he describes with the portmanteau as mobilenomics. Businesses benefit from creating a relationship through mobilenomics because mobile is instant, personalized, and easy to access for both the consumer and the business. However, Qualman identifies situations that prevent businesses from capitalizing on the advantages of mobilenomics.

Actions, Responses, and Priorities

Communicating through mobile is now a critical component of successful marketing. Qualman (2013) declares that 90% of all Tweets are from mobile devices but businesses spend less than 1% on mobile strategies. Businesses that want to develop relationships with clients have the opportunity to communicate with clients directly and instantly. Businesses that want to have better success rates through mobile should have an evolving social media policy in place. Another situation that Qualman identifies as influential in mobilenomics is the response rate for consumer action using mobile devices. The redemption rates for coupon through mobile are ten times higher than print redemption rates, and 70% of mobile searches lead to action within one hour whereas searches on a desktop lead to action in one month (Qualman, 2013). Consumers have determined that immediate savings is a priority so businesses should have a plan in place to cultivate communication with clients through mobile.

Relationship Marketing through Mobile

Contemporary marketing through mobile is instant and establishes the importance of the businesses and client relationship. “Relationship marketing continually deepens the buyer’s trust in the company, which, as the customer’s loyalty grows, increases a company’s understanding of the customer’s needs and desires” (Pride, Hughes, Kapoor, 2012, p. 336). Qualman states the advantages of mobilenomics for businesses by describing the relationship between the power of mobile and consumer behavior. Mobile marketing in the 21st century is a crucial aspect of a successful business.


Pride, W. M., Hughes, R. J., Kapoor, J. R., (2012). Business, 11th Ed. Mason, OH: Cengage        Learning.

Qualman, E. [Erik Qualman]. (2013, March 25). Mobile Stats Video – Mobilenomics |      @equalman [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRiwUCXPo8U

Situation Relevance and Mobile Marketing

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As mobile marketing becomes more complex and technologically easier to use, situational relevance will evolve into a dominant aspect of marketing efforts.  Marketers will need to engage consumers in creative and unusual ways that allow the consumer the ability to navigate a marketing situation with clarity.  Successful mobile marketers will need to achieve a balance between providing relevant content and demonstrating ethical behavior to consumers. 

Martin (2013) describes the Cool Versus Creepy Scale as a measurement for situational marketing.  Content will need to become finite and personal but simultaneously feel unobtrusive and natural. In The Power of Habit, Duhigg (2012) describes how Target used shopping habits to send coupons to pregnant women without creeping out expecting mothers.  “They camouflaged what they knew” (Duhig, 2012, p. 463).  Consumers can benefit from value-added information in context but the information needs to have an organic and passive approach.  Mobile marketers can achieve situational relevance while simultaneously demonstrating an ethical approach to user data.


Duhigg, C. (2012) The power of habit :why we do what we do in life and business New York : Random House.

Martin, C. (2013).  Mobile Influence: the new power of the consumer.  New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

New Media Versus Old Media


The blog post New Media vs Old Media from the Rand Media Group explored the shift in consumer behavior toward media and technology trends. This blog post provided interesting information about ad revenue, which corresponds with the topic of information accuracy (Rand Media Group, 2014). One subtopic that was examined was vetted journalism in both old and new media. Vetted journalism is an important topic within media convergence because the effects of spreading unexamined and inaccurate information can have detrimental social repercussions.

Baran (2014) identifies dependency theory as the, “relationship between the larger social system, the media’s role in that system, and audience relationships to the media” (p. 331). New media and old media have converged but have not completely integrated. As smartphones and connection service to the Internet became affordable, the seemingly natural evolution was that old and new media would synthesize. However, the business models behind old media have not adapted to new media consumer behaviors. Martin (2013) indicates that old media marketing efforts are lead in the traditional serial process but new media consumer behavior is continually in action. Consumers of new media will not wait for information to be distributed at a predetermined time. Even though old media has been converging with new media since the 2000s, new media has the consumer advantage because new media is instant.


Baran, S. J., (2014), Introduction to Mass Communication Media Literacy and Culture. (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Martin, C. (2013). Mobile Influence: the new power of the consumer. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Rand Media Group. (2014). New Media vs Old Media. Blog. Retrieved from http://snhu-media.snhu.edu/files/course_repository/graduate/com/com568/new_media_vs_old_media.pdf


Reuse or Reimagine Copy for Multiple Media Platforms

Communicating across multiple platforms is skill professional communicators need to develop to remain relevant in any communications field. Creating content that incorporates the roles of the audience and the methods of interaction on different technological devices is a necessary consideration. Designing information as a strategic measure will help professional communicators create compelling content for a diverse audience using varied new media platforms.

Planning and Development of Visual Platforms

In an increasingly mobile society, content needs to be accessible across a multitude of platforms (Handley and Chapman, 2012, p. 13). Developing and planning content for continuity of platform creates consistency for readers, which is important for lasting business relationships. Even though society has adapted to a more mobile use of media, maintaining information that is accessible in desktop computer form is relevant. McGrane (2013) indicates that audiences do not think of different platforms such as smartphones, tablets, and personal computers as separate containers for content but as windows into one container. Recognizing the strengths and weaknesses of story telling with new media is a necessary skill for creating continuity and simplifying the user experience. According to Kolodzy (2013), a professional communicator should determine the best use of words, pictures, and sound to create suitable media that best serves the audience.

Strategic Design for Creating Continuity across Platforms

The audience, purpose, and context are the three key elements for creating continuity in content across different devices. Kostelnick and Roberts (2011) describe the audience as the group communicated to, the purpose as the point of communicating information and the context as the circumstances the audiences is accessing the information communicated. Drafting content to meet the different demands of visual design can include spatial modes and arrangements. The size and shape of a screen should be factored into continuity across platforms. Continuous scrolling and landscape orientations perform differently on a tablet versus a desktop so a professional communicator needs to address how icons, links, logos, photographs, and text will transverse (Kostelnick and Roberts, 2011).

Moving from one form of technology to another should be a seamless transition for content. Beebe, Beebe, and Ivy (2009) define noise as the “interference, either literal or psychological, that hinders the accurate encoding or decoding of a message” (p. 12). Reducing visual noise by ensuring textual transition from devices is an important part of developing continuity. Visiting a website on a tablet in portrait orientation and visiting the same website on a desktop should maintain font style but shift typeface width to eliminate blank screen space (Kostelnick and Roberts, 2011). Linear components such as the visual elements of text should maintain consistency and the textual elements of width in the typeface should be applied to specific devices.

Conclusions of Interactive New Media Relationships

Audience participation through different modes of technology is a central aspect of website design in the 21st Century. Readers are beginning to expect that websites will work across multiple technological platforms so creating content that is not only engaging but is consistent is necessary for success. By examining how an audience interacts with new media platforms and applying writing strategies for developing appropriate content, a professional communicator can influence how information is distributed, perceived, and redistributed.



Beebe, S. A., Beebe, S. J., & Ivy, D. K. (2009). Communication: Principles for a Lifetime. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon Pearson Education, Inc.

Handley, A., & Chapman, C. C. (2012).  Content rules: How to create killer blogs, podcasts, videos, eBooks, webinars (and more) that engage customers and ignite your business (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley

Kolodzy, J. (2013). Practicing convergence journalism. New York, NY: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.

Kostelnick, C., & Roberts, D. D., (2011). Designing visual language: strategies for professional communicators. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.

McGrane, K. (2013, January 23). Windows on the web. A List Apart. Retrieved from http://alistapart.com/column/windows-on-the-web